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How to make a tileable texture

In this tutorial i'll show you how to make a tileable (seamless) texture in Adobe Photoshop.
1. Choosing a good photo
It is important:
 - to choose a photo taken at 90 degrees angle, or close to 90 degrees, because it is easier to operate with it in Photoshop.


picture 1.

 - to choose a photo with uniform light distribution.
picture 2.

 If a photo taken at an angle different from 90 degrees, but not much, can be corrected in Photoshop, a photo with a non-uniform light distibution can be very hard, or impossible, to correct, unless you don't want to experience something else.

2. Create seamless photo
 For the beginning, we'll have to make a square picture of our texture (depend on the case, for example, a wooden floor with planks will have to be rectangular).
picture 3

picture 4

picture 5

picture 6

 The value for Horizontal and Vertical must be half the size of the original picture. In this case is 125x125 px, because the original file has 250x250 px.
picture 7

picture 8

 Using ALT key we will clone parts of the picture and correct the seam lines.
 Depending on the size of the original image, the size of the Stamp Tool brush will be different.
picture 9


3. Testing the pattern
 We’ll make a pattern from this picture.
picture 10

picture 11

 We’ll create a new document, with the dimensions double the size of our picture. In this case will be 500x500 pixels.
Now fill this picture with the pattern we’ve just created.
picture 12

picture 13

From “pattern” choose your picture and you’ll get to something like this:
picture 14


4. Retouching errors
 Notice that there are some errors in the middle of the image. That errors appears because we’ve focused in correcting the texture in the middle and left the margins untouched.
The margins of the picture will have to be the same, two by two: top margin the same with bottom, left margin the same with the right one.
Now I’ll explain how to do this.
We’ll take texture from picture 9 in this tutorial (with our latest changes).
Make a rectangular selection on top of the image and choose “layer via copy”.
picture 15

Duplicate this layer, put it on bottom of the image and by pressing ALT+E+F choose “flip vertical”.
picture 16

Now erase a little bit of the top of this layer and you’ll obtain something like this
picture 17

Select all layers, right click and select “merge layers”.
What we’ve done is that the top of the image in the same with the bottom.
Do the same steps to make left side of the picture to be the same with the right side.

5. Final pattern test
 Now we’ll do a pattern test again, repeating the steps from # 3 Testing the pattern and the result should be a seamless texture.